The Tuvan People's Republic was a partially recognized Soviet puppet state. Lham Dorji (2008), "The Wangchuk Dynasty: 100 Years of Enlightened Monarchy in Bhutan.  The country took in some 400 Jewish refugees from occupied Europe and granted citizenship to some others, mostly people of means who were able to pay. Under the Joint Air Training Scheme, part of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan, South Africa trained 33,347 aircrews for the British Royal Air Force, South African Air Force and other Allied air forces. Bulgaria occupied portions of Greece and Yugoslavia to recreate the 19th century boundaries of Greater Bulgaria, but it did not participate in the Invasion of the Soviet Union. When a German general approached, the Presiding Judge told him: "The Court and its staff are inviolable. The particular contributions were manpower (see above), food, armaments, and its unique geographical location. Some Indian nationalists used the opportunity of war as a time to fight the British. A ranking of the world’s foremost military powers taking into account a wide variety of factors and using a precise formula to rate countries by their warfighing capabilities. The Second World War made Salvadorans weary of their dictatorship, and a general national strike in 1944 forced Hernandez to resign and flee to Guatemala, he was later killed in Honduras by a vengeful Salvadoran citizen. In 1942 they were transferred to the United States, which had also occupied Surinam in 1941 to secure its bauxite mines. Many Argentines saw the war as a potential source of economic benefit by exporting to both sides. Badoglio and the king escaped to Brindisi without giving any order to the army, which was left in chaos and without leadership: some divisions surrendered to the Germans, other fought back on their own. , The coastal parts of Italian Libya became an integral part of Italy under a law of 9 January 1939, and Libya came to be called "the Fourth Shore of Italy" (Quarta Sponda). Together with the French Resistance, they played a part in the Mediterranean Theatre and the liberation of western Europe, including France in 1944. China. , Initially, Chile chose to remain neutral in the war, having close trading links with Germany. He refused once again. , During the Syria–Lebanon Campaign starting on 8 June 1941, many volunteers from Palestine participated in the fighting, including Palmach units that had been attached to allied troops. , Britain's declaration of war against Italy reinvigorated the Patriot movement and paved the way for the final ousting of the Italians in Ethiopia and in the Horn of Africa. See the article on the USS Washington. They returned to Salisbury after only a month, having found no risk of a possible rebellion. Norway was strategically important as a route for the transport of iron ore from Sweden to Germany, via Narvik. Bornholm remained under Soviet control until 1946. . • Warsaw Southern Rhodesians served in East Africa, Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and the Burma Campaign. Despite urgings from the Stormont government, mandatory conscription was never implemented in Northern Ireland due to Irish nationalist opposition, which echoed nationalist agitation against conscription during World War I. Nevertheless, the British lost an aircraft carrier, two cruisers, and two destroyers, while the Royal Air Force squadrons on Ceylon suffered severe losses. 1954) (Most Recent) Type of Archival Materials: Textual Records . • Kiev Despite his policy of neutrality, upon the outbreak of the war the king sent the government of India a gift of 100,000 rupees as a gesture of friendship.  In August 1942, Germany fully annexed Luxembourg and attached it to Gau Moselland. , Benito Mussolini had formed Italian East Africa in 1936 by merging recently conquered Ethiopia with the older colonies of Eritrea and Somaliland.  Squadrons of Libyan Spahis served as light cavalry. The U.S. played an important role in providing valuable industrial production to support the Allied war effort. Tibet established a Foreign Office in 1942, and in 1946 it sent congratulatory missions to China and India related to the end of the war. , Despite efforts to resist, and because of the German threat to Portuguese merchant trade, in January 1942 Salazar signed an agreement to sell tungsten to Germany. It was invaded without declaration of war as part of Operation Weserübung and occupied by Germany on 9 April 1940, after being overwhelmed in a few hours of fighting. King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud was a personal friend of Franklin D. Roosevelt. As the tide of the war turned, and Liberation approached, the Resistance became divided along political lines, and a mini civil war ensued between EAM, rightist resistance groups and the collaborationist government's Security Battalions. By the end of the war Hong Kong's population had fallen from 1,500,000 to a mere 600,000. . This scheme, the Madagascar Plan, never came to fruition for a variety of reasons. Most of the South African 2nd Division was taken prisoner with the fall of Tobruk on 21 June 1942. Roosevelt Roads Naval Station grew into a major facility but was scaled back after the defeat of Germany. Total military personnel: … On 4 May 1945, German forces in Denmark surrendered to the British army. It was the first attack on Canadian soil since the Fenian Raids. Some guarded American installations in the Caribbean, while others served in combat in the European and Pacific theatres. While Prince Louis II's sympathies were strongly pro-French, he tried to keep Monaco neutral during World War II, and he supported the Vichy France government of his old army colleague, Philippe Pétain. American Samoa is an American territory and a U.S. Navy base, and was used during the war. , The Empire of Japan was the leader of the Axis powers in the Pacific Theatre. The U.S. led the Manhattan Project to develop atomic weapons, which it deployed in August 1945 in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The United States naval station at Guantanamo Bay served as an important base for protecting Allied shipping in the Caribbean, and on 15 May 1943, a Cuban warship sank a German submarine in waters near Havana. , Fiji was a British colony during World War II.  Following the Italian surrender in September 1943, the territory of Montenegro was occupied by German forces which withdrew in December 1944. , Attempts to sway the government did occur. The Australian mainland came under direct attack for the first time in 1942, when Japanese aircraft launched a major bombing attack on Darwin in February, and attacked many other towns in northern Australia. With the Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, World War II was over. As the Allies emerged as possible victors, the regime became more neutral, at least in theory, finally declaring its neutrality in July 1943 although the complete removal of Spanish troops from Eastern Front was not completed until March 1944. Later that year the Australian Army entered campaigns against Italy and Germany in North Africa and Greece. In all, some 1.1 million Canadians served in the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force, … British occupation lasted until the end of the war. Germany's invasion of France brought the Nazis to the Pyrenees, which allowed Hitler to bring unanticipated pressures on Portugal and Spain. Several instances included Jews being sent to the battalion to evade detection by the Nazis. The war against the USSR inflicted loss of lives (both civilian and military), on a scale greater than any countries in the war. Like the Georgians and other people of the Caucasus who were upset with Soviet rule, some Azerbaijanis joined the side of Germany.  The legality of the annexation was not recognised by most Western countries and the Baltic states continued to exist as formally independent nations until 1991. , Southern Rhodesia (modern-day Zimbabwe) had been a self-governing British colony since 1923.  In addition to those in the armed forces, tens of thousands of Mexican men were hired as farm workers in the United States during the war years through the Bracero program, which continued and expanded in the decades after the war.  He was recalled and forced to retire in 1942. The French, with tremendous aircraft and fleet strength, have kept their stance on the ground for a very long time. Blacks were not able to rise above the rank of Warrant Officer. However, the plan failed due to the early surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945. Emperor Haile Selassie, with the support and cooperation of the British, was transported to the Sudan to work alongside Major Orde Wingate to organize and lead the main Ethiopian Patriot divisions that had fled fascist-controlled Ethiopia upon news of Britain's declaration of war. There was no armed opposition from Portuguese forces or the civilian population. Iraq was important to Britain through its position on a route to India and the strategic oil supplies that it provided. , The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between Germany and the Soviet Union left Estonia in the Soviet sphere of interest. Although the Italians had intended to establish a quasi-independent Montenegrin kingdom, these plans were permanently shelved after a popular uprising in July 1941. It withstood the Wehrmacht offensive on the Drava River. During the height of the occupation, 25,000 British soldiers were stationed in Iceland, compared to roughly 40,000 inhabitants of Reykjavík. The more radical branch of the Irgun disagreed and, on 17 July 1940, it split under the leadership of Avraham Stern and became known as "The National Military Organization in Israel" as opposed to Irgun's official name, "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel". The Germans and Italians responded quickly and sent military aid by Luftwaffe aircraft to Baghdad via Syria. , In order to maintain the status quo ante bellum between the Jews and the Arabs, the British instated a policy of equal recruitment from both groups to the Palestine Regiment. On 25 January 1942, Thailand declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom. Combat tanks: 406 7. . In August 1937, as part of their effort to support China, the Soviets decided to station troops along Mongolia's southern and southeastern frontiers. Rodogno, D. (2006).  German V-bomb attacks continued until the end of the war. Allied forces landed in Algeria with Operation Torch on 8 November 1942. Vatican City, the smallest autonomous country in the world at 0.44 km2 (0.16 sq mi), remained unoccupied throughout the war and its small military did not engage in combat. Several Swiss cities were accidentally bombed by both sides. During World War II, a total of about 13.6 million soldiers served in the German Army.Army personnel were made up of volunteers and conscripts. Hundreds of aircraft on both sides landed in Switzerland, such as those with battle damage, and were interned at Swiss airports and their crews held until the end of the war.  As well, the Canadian Merchant Navy completed over 25,000 voyages across the Atlantic. See Robert Fisk's In Time of War: Ireland, Ulster and the Price of Neutrality, 1939–1945 (1996). The war changed the demographics of the colony, concentrating workers in a few large towns and cities. Armenia was spared the devastation and destruction that wrought most of the western Soviet Union during the Great Patriotic War of World War II. In 1943, the Italian army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a fascist government administration. The Nazis subjected Danzig's Jewish and Polish minorities to the violence of the Holocaust and the Nazi crimes against the Polish nation. in May 1945. Uruguay's neutrality included a 500-kilometre (310 mi) exclusion zone extending from its coast, established as part of the Declaration of Panama. When France was defeated, Morocco came under the control of the Vichy regime, and therefore was nominally on the side of the Axis powers, although an active resistance movement operated. Germany's invasion of France brought the Nazis to the Pyrenees, which increased the ability of Hitler to bring pressures on Portugal and Spain. Benito Mussolini boasted in May 1941 to a group of Albanian fascists that he had achieved the Greater Albania long wanted by the Tirana nationalists. The United States occupied Greenland, a position later supported by the Danish envoy in Washington, Henrik Kauffmann. By the end of 1941, of the roughly 7,000 members of Partisans in Croatia, 5,400 were Serbs. . It was one of the three countries to declare war in 1943, the others being Chile and Colombia.  Mihailović was posthumously awarded the Legion of Merit by President Harry S. Truman for his role in Operation Halyard. After the sinking of a Samoan food ship by the Japanese flak gun ship Horisjimo in 1940, the Samoan government was forced to dispatch a light-gunned ship. It involved the vast majority of the world's nations —including all of the great powers —eventually forming two opposing military alliances : the Allies and the Axis . Iceland's government formally protested the occupation, but provided the British with de facto cooperation. The region remained under the control of Vichy France after the fall of France (25 June 1940) and until the Allied invasion of North Africa (8–16 November 1942). Afterward, the federation became the strategic centre of Free French activities in Africa, with the city of Brazzaville serving as the capital of Free France from 1940–1943. , At the outbreak of the war, Ethiopia was under Italian occupation and Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia was in exile in England trying in vain to obtain Allied support for his nation's cause. Turkey halted its sales to Germany in April, 1944 and broke off relations in August. Spain: With key technological ammunition, spaceship and aircraft designed for war also skillful soldiers these have berg Spain the nineteenth position on the world military strength country… After the armistice, France was split into two parts, an occupied sector and an unoccupied sector. , The German ambassador left the country, and measures of control were implemented, including the internment of German citizens in designated areas. A considerable force was fighting from Finnmark (Kirkenes port etc.)  Cuba received millions of dollars in American military aid through the Lend-Lease program, which included air bases, aircraft, weapons, and training. The Libyan divisions were loyal to Italy and performed well in combat. It created the Korean Liberation Army (KLA) on September 17, 1940 and declared war against the Empire of Japan on December 10, 1941. In October 1941, small Albanian Communist groups established an Albanian Communist Party in Tirana of 130 members under the leadership of Enver Hoxha.  Before he died, he was also awarded with Ordre de la Libération from Charles de Gaulle and the Norwegian War Cross. against the Soviets near Murmansk. However, due to the events of the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine and the alliance of exiled former Grand Mufti of Jerusalem Hajj Mohammad Amin al-Husayni with Adolf Hitler, only one Arab volunteered for every three Jewish volunteers. Peru broke off relations with the Axis on 24 January 1942. The GFP country comparison form is provided to allow you to make direct, side-by-side comparisons of any two world powers represented in the GFP database. Congolese troops also fought as the Force Publique, which saw combat against Italian forces in the East African Campaign. Once established in Geneva, Dr. Guerrero was visited by the Consul General of El Salvador in Switzerland, Colonel José Castellanos Contreras, who had fled from Germany, where he served as Consul until El Salvador broke relations with the Hitler regime. The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, was enthroned by the Ganden Phodrang government at the Potala Palace in 1939. With the return of the Soviet Armed Forces, 70,000 Estonians joined or were conscripted by the German side to fight the Soviets. Because of its ability to produce aviation fuel and its proximity to the Panama Canal, the oil refinery and port city of Talara, in northwest Peru, became an American air base. On 10 September 1939, Canada likewise declared war on Germany, the country's first independent declaration of war and the beginning of Canada's participation in the largest combined national effort in its history. , Germany occupied Albania in September 1943, dropping paratroopers into Tirana before the Albanian guerrillas could take the capital, and the German army soon drove the guerrillas into the hills and to the south. Most Lebanese people did not tolerate the Vichy government and the way it ruled, many Lebanese would mock and criticize the French soldiers for becoming Nazi Germany's ally. Despite its non-belligerency, Spain sent volunteers to fight against the Soviet Union in the form of the Blue Division. They reorganized in France and took part in the Battle of France. 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