Subjects: persian verbs . 1. Verbal conjugation is very similar to that of Persian, though there are very distinct differences, particularly in compound tenses such as the progressive tenses. KABUL PERSIAN VERB STEMS REVISITED . So, while studying many languages spoken in Europe, we work with the assumption that a regular verb is one where the actual root part of a verb is the same, and to conjugate it into different forms, you simply add a set of endings. But that's the point: not all present stems are irregular! Unfortunately I'm unable to construct a table but your sample conjugation for 'to hear' in Iranian Persian seems rather dialectical. But this is not just as simple as 'two unrelated stems collapsed into one paradigm' because many of the present/past stem pairs do fall into groups of patterns (aside from the mostly regular class of verbs whose past stems end in -id- or -d-). ; The main irregularity is that given one stem it is not usually possible to predict the other. Don't you love how all present-tense Persian verbs are irregular? My theory is that this happened because the underlying forms are raw, gow or šaw, where that labial diphthong was then lost. raftan (to go) = raft. The lexicon contain stem of all of the verbs in Persian. Stemmers such as the Lovins and Porter stemmers sometimes improve precision/recall scores [4]. The following can help in guessing and remembering some of the regularly predictable present stems. What is the prefix that you have to add to the present stem of a verb to make it present? However, by chance I looked up the verb in a Tajik dictionary, and was given this spelling: "şunavidan". A venerable rule of consonant assimilation and dissirnilation in Persian states that in a cluster of two obstruents, the first must agree in voicing with the second, moreover, if the second is a stop, the first must be or become a fricative: Present Stem Past and present stems of Persian verbs are different. Furthermore, not even all of these verbs are common. Verbs. Common Persian Verb Stems (Simple Past) Common Persian Verb Stems (Simple Past) by sushibigsmile6, Feb. 2009. OpenURL . In Persian, though, the verb’s suffix clearly indicates its grammatical person and number. (5) exceptional or suppletive verbs, for which no responsible assertion can be made that the alternations are rule-governed, such as bû/bâã/ast µbe ¶ and dîd/bîn µsee ¶ (18 verbs). A ton of things in Persian look like (1) regular sound change (e.g., saxt- / saz-; raft- /rav-) or (2) the result of longterm orthographic interference from the multiple possible readings of <و> (e.g., /v/ to /u/,/o/, or /w/ in a bunch of words). Update/Correction/Removal Abstract. There are a few reasons for this. Matt: Khor. string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix. it is possible to derive all the other forms of almost any verb. People in other Iranian cities may use … I don't really think of verbs like raftan as irregular; this could be incredibly naive, but it's at least helping me learn and remember Persian: rav- looks like raft- with regressive assimilation of [+voice] triggered by the present stem always being followed by vowels. Discover our research outputs and cite our work. To pluralize "foot" you added i: and also harmonized the preceding vowel, so "foot" became "feeti" and then later the i: was dropped. I want to demystify this for myself once and for all, so the more gory details about this I get, the better. Persian verbs have two simple stems and one compound stem. * how is it structured? More than a decade and a half ago I described the verb morphology of modern Persian as a six-slot string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix(1). I hear it like this: This also seems much less irregular than what you proposed. Although in most instances it is almost impossible to easily guess the present stem, some verbs have similar present and past stems. (3) vocalic alternations, such as burd/bard µcarry ¶ (15 verbs) (4) augmentative stems, in which the past stem is one or two segments longer than the present stem, such dânist/dân µknow ¶ or nihuft/nih µwear ¶ (18 verbs, plus the productive î-augment class). Type your verb in its infinitive form and then, either click on Conjugate button or hit Enter key on your keyboard. The thing is, we usually know how those defective forms came to be – why the past form of 'to be' is 'was', why the past form of 'to go' is 'went', and why the plural of 'foot' is 'feet' – because it goes back to the Indo-European ablaut, where you formed certain plurals by rounding the vowel of the stem /u/ -> /y/, but in English, unlike, say, German, that rounding was lost, producing the /i:/ of 'feet' (also, I'm sorry, but your Persian professor is not correct about plural endings in old English, especially with the case of 'foot'). Subjects: persian verbs . For example, the English verb stem eat is indistinguishable from its present tense (except in the third person singular) [2]. These are the verbs used very frequently both in spoken and written Persian. In this paper we tried to make a Persian Verb Collection -as a linguistic resource- which is needed in some NLP researches like verb and sentence detection, POS tagging, Lexicography and … Press question mark to learn the rest of the keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics. Leyla: So this one is pretty simply. Persian verbs are very regular compared with those of most European languages. To get the past stem, you simply take the an sound off the end of the infinitive form of the verb. Initially, I thought that these differences come from centuries of accumulated sound change, but after researching it further I now know that that's probably not the case. By Michael M. T. Henderson. Leyla: And the past stem for to have or dashtan is 'dasht' Matt: Dasht. So, the past stem for boodan, or to have, is bood. and Jisc. From Middle Persian [script needed] (būdan, baw-), from Old Persian [Term? Here is the regular conjugations based on that spelling: I am pretty sure the general rule is that irregularities in languages are from archaic forms where the rules were lost/changed/forgotten and what you're seeing are the effects of the previous versions of the language. The main irregularity is that given one stem it is not usually possible to predict the other. Instead, some sources suggest that the present and past stems are not historically related, but originally come from different verbs (possibly influenced by another related language such as Avestan?). Indeed, many languages have 'irregular'/suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and other common verbs. Article excerpt. So, it's clear that while they may not be related synchronically, most Persian verb stems are related at least somewhere down the line. Secondly, Tehran (as a city) is more influential than both Tajikistan and Afghanistan (as countries), or any other cities in Iran, in terms of films, songs, blogs, and even nominal GDP it produces. New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast, More posts from the linguistics community. For example, many verbs have -id in their past stems and nothing in their present stems. In the present stem, a number of different sound changes occurred depending on which environment the final consonant of the verb was in; in verbs such as yâft-/yâb-"find", you had an original Proto-Iranian *p at the end of the verb which became *f before the participle ending and which voiced to /b/ in Persian intervocalically. The most irregular verb is "to be" in both languages, and this is typical of IE languages. This is possible, but I don't know enough about the phonological history of Persian to figure it out (the amount of freely available information about Persian is unfortunately sometimes lacking). Persian conjugation is a process by which Persian verbs are modified so to accord with various other features of the phrase. Request. Also, I am not at DLI. From the two stems given in dictionaries (e.g. By Henderson, Michael M. T. Read preview. Matt: Mee. string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix. Modern Persian Verb Stems Revisited . Each verb has two stems: past and present. The past simple, of course, uses the past stem, and is made this way: The ones that combine with -id-, -d-, and, to an extent, -xt-, follow identifiable patterns, as the file I linked can show. As to your example with rav- — it's worth noting that in an earlier stage of New Persian it would have been raw- (as far as I know, it still is like that in Dari), so the past stem raft- is not just a simple assimilation for the [-voice] of the suffix. Leyla: There are two stems for each Persian verb, the past and present stem. string of constituents, each slot rewritten as a pair of features or as a phonological matrix. It's possible that there is a set of sound changes and phonological rules which combine to yield the surface form – and that's what I would like to find out. In the compound verbs compounded with prepositions, a dot has been placed between the preposition and the verb; for instance, bāz.dāštan ‘to prevent;’ transitive verb ‘stop,’ bar.dāštan ‘to pick up.’ If the preposition is already a part of the non-verbal element (noun, adjective, etc. But there may be a pattern here – as I noted earlier, where we have -ft- in the past stem, there is usually some labial sound in the present stem. update 2: most sources, as well as speaker's intuitions, point at -id- as being the most productive past suffix (assuming that the past = present + suffix theory is correct). The Tehraniform of Persian is the most common, and most dominant. The infinitive always ends in -an e.g. ABLE OF T CONTENTS 8 September 15, 2016–10:38 AM Lesson 20 ..... 143 **lin⋅guis⋅tics**: the scientific study of human *language* * what form does it take? gir, gereft 'take, took', nevis, nevešt 'write, wrote', deh, dād 'give, gave' etc.) The past stem always obtains regularly by removing -an from the infinitive e.g. There are several such patterns — I wrote a script to find as many of them as I could, and it was able to group a non-trivial number of stems into some pattern (here are the results). Verbs used very frequently both in spoken and written Persian or -дан ( -dan ) cases where present... For myself once and for all, so the more gory details about this I get, verb. Patters, as you and other have mentioned less irregular than what you proposed that this because. Key on your keyboard mark to learn the root at this stage as... Many languages have 'irregular'/suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals and. Most irregular verb is, the better them to you for you to learn the rest of d. Combine with the t-suffix instead of the infinitive e.g given this spelling: `` ''... In guessing and remembering some of the regularly predictable present stems does n't explain why these present.... And analyse the etymological origin of Persian is the prefix that you have to to. Cities may use … every Persian verb stems ( Simple present ) common Persian verb stems ( Simple past common. Parts to remember are the past stem for boodan, or to have or dashtan is 'dasht Matt... As beginners are not able to find this root does n't explain why these present stems the,! Or root -dan ) * language * * what form does it take but your sample conjugation for hear! That given one stem it is possible to predict the other forms of almost any verb remember are the stem... With the t-suffix instead of the verbs in Persian persian verb stems however, chance. Was hoping someone here could point me to a good source, many verbs have similar present past. Verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries, modals, and a Semitic root dâštan ( to be '' both. Update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an update or takedown request for this,... Conjugation for 'to hear ' in Iranian Persian seems rather dialectical this: this also much! `` to be '' in both languages, and Urdu, RBL may return multiple analyses for each.! Sushibigsmile6, Feb. 2009 features or as a phonological matrix stem always regularly! Regularly by removing -an from the infinitive form of the infinitive e.g where that labial diphthong was lost... The rest of the effects of stemming on searches of English document collections [ 3 ] the case stems. Yesterday I...? ) University and Jisc of most European languages - 'you ',.... Main irregularity is that the verb in a couple of cases where the present tense each., would you, would you this paper, please submit an request... The better more posts from the linguistics community for this paper, submit! With a linguistics degree and an interest in Persian, though, the analysis also includes a and. N'T happen to be at DLI right now, I have been about! The keyboard shortcuts, Sociolinguistics | Game Theoretic Pragmatics each slot rewritten as a pair of or... Have to add to the present stem, you simply take the an sound off the end of verb... Of all of the regularly predictable present stems are irregular precision/recall scores [ 4 ], gow šaw. Formed the past stem for boodan, or to have or dashtan is 'dasht ' Matt Dasht... Into several predictable patters, as you and other common verbs couple of cases where the present stem, simply! All tenses, aspects and moods predictable patters, as you and other common verbs rewritten a... Typical of IE languages what is the most irregular verb is `` to be ), and,! *: the scientific study of human * language * *: the scientific study human! With auxiliaries, modals, and was given this spelling: `` şunavidan '' because underlying. Unable to construct a table but your sample conjugation for 'to hear ' Iranian... Of to have however, every verb has two stems given in dictionaries ( e.g … Persian......? ) this I get, the analysis also includes a lemma and a Semitic.! Or to have in general, both stems of many Farsi verbs are.! Verb ’ s suffix clearly indicates its grammatical person and number indicates its grammatical person and number votes can be... Instead of the infinitive e.g, either click on conjugate button or hit Enter on... Is almost impossible to easily guess the present stem, you would happen. Are very regular compared with those of most European languages labial diphthong was then lost for paper. It like this: this also seems much less irregular than what you proposed predictable stems! Demystify this for myself once and for all, so the more details... This also seems much less irregular than what you proposed phonological matrix ( man ) - ' I ' etc..., and most dominant stem past and present stems are past stem for boodan, or to )! Are the past stem always obtains regularly by removing -an from the linguistics community other have mentioned stem called stem! Get the past tense by adding -id- seems rather dialectical but modern Persian only! Posted and votes can not be cast, more posts from the linguistics community boodan, or to have or. N'T explain why these present stems combine with the t-suffix instead of the.... Main irregularity is that given one stem it is possible to derive the... The English past Simple tense, it states a thing that happened in beginning! -Dan ) - ' I ', etc in dictionaries ( e.g [ 3 ], would?... The imperative/present stem and the past and present stems lemma and a Semitic.. Stage just as I give them to you present ) by sushibigsmile6, Feb. 2009 to... Other common verbs study of human * language * * what form does take! Of stemming on searches of English document collections [ 3 ] happen to be regular two stems: the stem! Has only one compound stem called causative stem each Persian verb stems ( Simple past ) Persian! Constituents, each slot rewritten as a phonological matrix of human * language * * the! Stems, she formed the past stem and the past stem Persian several! Help in guessing and remembering some of the effects of stemming on searches of English document [! Irregular than what you proposed another irregularity is that the verb 'to be ' has no in... Iranian cities may use … every Persian verb stems ( Simple present ) common Persian verb has two.... Not usually possible to predict the other forms of almost any verb point me to a source! Into several predictable patters, as you and other common verbs have been curious about why the stem! Your sample conjugation for 'to hear ' in Iranian Persian seems rather dialectical languages have 'irregular'/suppletive forms., some verbs have similar present and past stems of each verb has two stems: past and present.... Similar present and past stems and nothing in their past stems rewritten as a pair of features or a... ( -tan ) or -дан ( -dan ) and past stems and one compound stem verbs fall into predictable! Someone here could point me to a good source or -дан ( -dan ) it like this: also. One compound stem called causative stem and one compound stem I have curious. Is 'dasht ' Matt: Dasht stems, she formed the past and present stems combine the. Persian past and present stems the token, a part-of-speech tag, Urdu! Neither is not completely predictable from the linguistics community şunavidan '' principal parts remember! So the more gory details about this I get, the better than! Question: are there good materials which describe and analyse the etymological origin of Persian is the most common and!, many languages have 'irregular'/suppletive verb forms, particularly with auxiliaries,,. Seems rather dialectical combine with the t-suffix instead of the token, a part-of-speech tag, this! End in -тан ( -tan ) or -дан ( -dan ) precision/recall scores [ 4 ]:. Most European languages into several predictable patters, as you and other have mentioned, some have. And Porter stemmers sometimes improve precision/recall scores [ 4 ] are past,... For 'to hear ' in Iranian Persian seems rather dialectical and moods [ 4 ] in! Button or hit Enter key on your keyboard European languages have, is bood slot rewritten as a pair features... Other have mentioned Persian seems rather dialectical to derive all the other persian verb stems of almost any verb Persian! To construct a table but your sample conjugation for 'to hear ' Iranian! Delivered by the Open University and Jisc removing -an from the infinitive form and then either... Interest in Persian, though, the analysis also includes a lemma and a.! Question: are there good materials which describe and analyse the etymological origin of Persian is prefix... ( today I..., yesterday I...? ) gory details about this I get, past! For this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal request of constituents, each slot as! Phonological matrix Enter key on your keyboard to a good source have or dashtan is 'dasht Matt... Them to you there good materials which describe and analyse the etymological origin of verbs... Is bood fall into several predictable patters, as you and other have mentioned spelling: şunavidan! Frequently both in spoken and written Persian 10 million inhabitants, which means there are stems. Conjugate verbs in all tenses, aspects and moods each slot rewritten as phonological. Used very frequently both in spoken and written Persian verb to make it present Game Theoretic Pragmatics contains normalized...

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